29 Giugno 2011

Anti-Semitism Summary overview of the situation in the European Union 2001-2010





This report is the 7th update of the report Manifestations of anti-Semitism in


the EU published in 2004 by the predecessor of the Fundamental Rights


Agency of the European Union (FRA), the European Union Monitoring


Centre on Racism and Xenophobia. It contains the latest available


governmental and non-governmental statistical data covering the years


2001 to 2009, and, in addition, selected incidents identified through nongovernmental


organisations (NGOs) and media reports.


The Agency’s data collection work over recent years shows that few


European Union (EU) Member States have official data and statistics on


anti-Semitic incidents. Even where data exist, they are not comparable,


since they are collected using different definitions and methodologies.


Furthermore, in many EU Member States Jewish organisations or other


civil society organisations do not collect data on anti-Semitic incidents in a


systematic way, as there is no complaints mechanism in place to receive


and investigate allegations. Where such data exists, usually as lists of


cases, they are collected ad hoc by civil society organisations or are


based on media reports with varying degrees of validity and reliability.


Across most EU Member States, as the FRA has repeatedly noted, there


is a serious problem of underreporting, particularly in reference to official


systems of data collection that are based on police records and criminal


justice data, because not all officially registered anti-Semitic incidents are


categorised under the heading ‘anti-Semitism’, and/or because not all anti-


Semitic incidents are reported to an official body by victims or witnesses.


In unofficial data collection or when the methodology applied is


insufficiently robust the same incident may be recorded twice under


different categories, for example, under both ‘defamation’ and under


‘property damage’.


In view of the lack of robust and comparable data showing the extent to


which Jews in the EU are subject to discrimination, hate crime and hate


speech, the FRA decided in 2011 to launch a major survey on the Jewish


population in EU Member States. The issues to be covered will include


experiences and perceptions of discrimination (direct, indirect and


harassment) in key areas of social life, such as education, housing, health


and employment, as well as experiences and perceptions of hate crime


and hate speech, and, in addition, awareness of available legal remedies.1


The survey design will be developed in close consultation with key


stakeholders, including representatives of Jewish communities in the


European Union.