27 Luglio 2011

Terrorist Incidents against Jewish Communities and Israeli Citizens Abroad 1968 – 2010





During the 43 years since 1968, the


year when Palestinian terror groups


began to attack Jewish and Israeli


targets outside the Middle East, some


427 recorded attacks and foiled or


aborted plots are known to have


taken place.


These 427 actual and foiled terrorist


attacks have included plots by


Palestinian nationalists, neo-Nazis,


radical leftists and, most recently,


both Shiite and Sunni Islamists.


The early 1980s saw the highest


number of attacks, which coincided


with the largest number of terrorist


attacks against all other targets, in


Europe and Latin America. This was


the era of revolutionary Marxist-


Leninist terror groups that evolved out


of the post-1968 New Left movement,


which received help from Soviet Bloc


states and which forged ideological


and tactical alliances with Palestinian


terror groups.


The collapse of the Soviet Bloc and


the signing of the Oslo Accords led


to a dramatic reduction in terrorism


against Jewish and Israeli targets


outside Israel in the second half of


the 1990s. However, the first decade


of the twenty-first century saw the


growth of global jihadi and neo-Nazi


terrorism, replacing old sources


of terrorism with new ones.


There were actual and foiled terrorist


attacks on Jews and Israelis abroad


in a total of 57 countries outside


Israel. The countries with the


highest number of attacks were


France (51 attacks); the United


States (34 attacks); Italy (33 attacks),


Argentina and Germany (29 attacks


in each).


Since 2000, the countries with the


highest number of attacks, both


successful and foiled, have been the


United States (eight attacks), Morocco


(five attacks), the United Kingdom (five


attacks) and Germany (four attacks).


Jewish communities were the target of


250 attacks or foiled attacks, whereas


Israel-linked institutions and individuals


were the target in 189 cases. Of the


250 attacks on Jewish communities,


Jewish community buildings,


organisations and events were the most


frequently attacked (96 incidents).


Synagogues were the targets of 88


actual and attempted terrorist attacks,


while Jewish schools were targets on


16 occasions.


The organisations responsible for


the largest numbers of attacks, both


successful and foiled, during the period


covered by the report are the Palestine


Liberation Organisation (PLO) and its


various affiliates, with 35 attacks;


the Popular Front for the Liberation


of Palestine (PFLP), with 31 attacks;


Abu Nidal’s Fatah Revolutionary Council


(FRC, 24 attacks); Al-Qaeda and its


affiliates (19 attacks); and Hizbollah


(14 attacks).


A total of 208 incidents involved


bombings and employed improvised


explosive devices of all kinds;


76 incidents involved shootings;


while 27 incidents involved letter or


parcel bombs. These are the normal


modus operandi of sub-state actors.


Twelve attacks involved vehicle-borne


bombs and seven plots involved


suicide bombers. In 80 cases, attacks


were interdicted by the authorities,


aborted or otherwise foiled during


the planning stages.


The early years of the period covered


in this report were characterised by


shootings and the use of improvised


explosive devices delivered to


buildings as letter or parcel bombs;


the intermediate years by car bombs;


and the latter years by suicide


bombings. This reflects the change


from far-left and far-right terrorism,


through secular Palestinian terrorism,


to global jihad movement terrorism.


A new terrorist method, which emerged


with the 2008 Mumbai attacks, was


that of multiple-site armed attacks by


small groups, known as ‘swarming’.


Information subsequently made public


suggests that the global jihad


movement is increasingly inclined to


adopt this strategy, which relies on


self-radicalised small groups who may


not have undergone extensive training


by Al-Qaeda and its affiliates.


Far-right, ‘lone wolf’ activists are


increasingly resorting to terrorism in


Europe and the USA under the influence


of the leaderless resistance model.